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如何选购胆机--电子管功放选购指南

admin 2018-03-28 19:40:00 无损音乐交流 0℃
一.初购胆机  胆机爱好者日益增多,从学生到商人、从职员到政治家,各行各界人士都有,有怀旧及收集爱好者、有革新派、自作派和"摩提"派,还有艺术家和作家。  怀旧爱好者多数年青时代与胆机有过一段缘,曾醉心于它的醇厚靓声,在几个不眠的夜晚,几乎可以从胆中徐徐燃烧的火焰看到音响讯号在各级里放大,最后在音箱里还原;或曾是学校里的积极份子,可忘不了那一段吵吵闹闹围在一起制作音响的日子。  收集爱好者把胆机当成古董玩物来收藏,有纯粹收集名厂的产品,如WE就是他们搜索的对象,有的专收集三极管胆机,有的收集胆收音机。这些收集家中,有的只收不卖,真对胆机的热诚可敬可佩,有的买机卖机,这也是一种积极推广正当爱好的行为,当然爱好也须有经济实力去支持才能永固。喜新弃旧型爱好者也可以说是革新派。听厌了石机换胆机,听了胆机还想继续升级,也就是这班兄弟,把音响世界搞得轰轰烈烈。  胆机给自作派和"摩提"派带来了大展身手的机会,什么三极管单端,五极管推挽,任何设计都去尝试,换胆、换线、换电容、电阻,真是无所不"摩"。更各持己见,相持不下。  艺术家们喜爱音乐,在深秋湖畔,在隆冬的深夜里,那闪烁着的灯胆乐声更带来了不少的暇想与灵感。二.选择胆机  市场上的胆机琳琅满目,有大众化型和名牌产品。大众化型产品价钱一般在一千美元以下,有专供音响爱好者自行制作的DIY ( Do it your self ) Kit。此类胆机线路与机体设计平平,用中等质量零件,部分产品由于厂家降低造价而忽略了机体外观,此类机型线路设计虽然精简,但故障也少,中等质量零件可能影响音质,但读者不必担心它的耐用性能,这类机很适合初入门的胆机爱好者。  欧美日厂家售卖KIT型机已经历了数十年,他们无论在设计、配件、包装与制作手册上都下不少功夫。包装精简牢固,以邮购方式购买的读者也不必担忧购件在路途中受损。制作手册更精心设计,图文并茂,只要按部就班根据手册装机,即使对电学只有基本知识的大都能制作成功。碰到了困难,厂方也很乐意地去指导,KIT机通常比同样的成品机便宜数百美元,年青爱好者学习了电学理论后可通过实际装机进一步提高对音响的爱好。  名牌机敢于用料,一对WE 300B可比普通的300B价格高出数十倍。数十美元一只的电容,纯银接线,镀金接口等都是名牌机的标准规格。特高价名牌胆机用的Parmelloy,芯片再配以纯银线圈制作的输出火牛,其售价之高更是不想可知。  名牌胆机造型精心设计,制作细致巧夺天工,有如一件艺术品,其价值经久不衰。想买KIT或成品机,大众型式名牌机,参考广告上的技术规格和音响杂志行家们的结论肯定不会错,不过最终还是以"量入为出"这四个字由读者们自己来决定,在这里,笔者只能在技术性范围内对读者们提供一些意见。三.后级功率多大  胆机后级输出功率一般不大,单端后级只有数瓦至十数瓦,单端并联最多二三十瓦。多数推挽式后级三十至六十瓦,瓦数大的胆机后级造价昂贵,除非有特殊的需要,一般来说五十瓦以下的功率在40平方米的聆听室已绰绰有余,喜爱胆机的朋友不须太追求大功率的胆机后级。扬声器决定胆机的选择,灵敏度低的扬声器难推,但是读者可放心,大部分扬声器爱胆,一部只有八瓦A级Audion同样可令灵敏度只有82.3db SPL的Rogers LS 3/5a表现出色。  胆机热度高,尤其是功率大或OTL型胆机。单声道80W功率的EL 34推挽后级大概产生等于200W灯泡的热能,一只6C33C-B双三极强放管温度高达260℃!散热问题不可不考虑。四.前级又如何  胆机前级有专供高电平输入(CD,Tapedeck,tuner)的Line Stage和包括Phono在内的两种,两者价格相差颇大,不玩LP的朋友可不须买后者。  Line Stage最好有三只双三极管放大、有Phono放大的则须有六只双三极管,这样的设计肯定设有负回输并在最后一级以Cathode Follower低输出阻抗输出,购买前级必须选择用料好的牌子,劣质变压器会发生轻微的震动,骚扰平静的音乐背景,不好的电阻用久后会产生噪音,电容更影响音质、插座、接线、线路板等都须一一仔细查看。  标准的前级须有稳压设备,真空管稳压设计占位大,最后能与放大部份分体,各灯丝都须用直流电电源。  前级也是一个输入讯号总站,它的输入座和调控功能须多样,有EPL ( external processing Loop )设备的,还可以接Home theatre processor,制造左右两声道胆声,音响效果在观看歌剧时尤其显著。五.灯胆是否难寻  推挽式胆机后级放大管一般沿用EL 34 ( 6CA7 ),5881(6L6),KT 88,6550,6V6,EL 84 ( 6BQ5 ),少数大功率胆机以高频用6146B和807为后级胆,英制胆机多用6L6/5881,笔者不知其中原因,也许是它的出生早,设计家们对它的特性早已摸透。各厂现在都还在生产,有中国的曙光,俄国Svetlana和Sovtek,美国Groove tubes等。  EL 34也非常普及,价平的Svetlana和Sovtek产品质量都不错。靓声的KT 88和6550胆现已成收藏品,不过新产品也不少。  单端机后级普遍用300B,2A3,6B4,6080之类三极管放大管,也有用811,845,211之类的高频强放管。在众多单端机里,300B用得最广,各厂现在都还在继续生产此胆,甚至连停产多年的Western Electric也已重新恢复生产闻名的WE-300B,6080,811也不难买到,至于845,15,2A3,211之类的三极管就较难寻,也许只有中国还生产。WE最近恢复生产WE 212E/308B,此无敌三极管能产生超过300B十倍的输出功率(单管单端输出100W!),对要求高功率单端机的发烧友应该是喜讯。美国一些胆商也有出售二手货胆,喜爱实验的朋友可以廉价订购。前级用的小型胆更不难买到,一些旧庄新货( Nos,New old stock )珍贵胆也不缺。六.胆机靓声是一个事实,不过它也有短处  灯胆工作时温度高而且易破,家有小孩的尤其要特别小心,应放在通风而且不易接触到的地方。胆机工作电压高,在关机一段时间内也许还会有高电压存在,万一发生故障,不懂电学的读者最好不要自行修理,懂电学的则须要小心从事。灯胆寿命普遍是数千小时,正常可用上一两年,WE 300B就例外,它有四万小时的寿命,可用上数十年!  看美国的CES,胆机产品有增加的趋势,粗计也有七十余,胆机厂家展出他们的产品,比石机多了一倍,WE除了重产WE 274B和WE 308B外,也将重新生产WE喇叭和胆机,老将东山再起,大家拭目以待,洗耳恭听。 One. Fan of engine of bravery machine bravery is bought first increasingly grow in quantity, arrive from the student businessman, arrive from the employee politician, personage of each all circles has, have nostalgic reach gather fan, have an innovation clique, make clique and " oneself rub promote " group, still have artist and writer. Youthful times and bravery machine had had nostalgic lover majority a paragraph of predestined relationship, what ever was bent on it is full-bodied beautiful tone, be in a few not the night of Mian, almost OK from inside bravery slowly flaming blaze sees acoustics question mark is in various li of enlarge, it is finally in sound box reductive; Or ever was the activist in the school, can not forget that paragraph cat-and-dog the life that surrounds the acoustics that make together. Collect lover to regard bravery machine as antique plaything will collect, have the product that collects a works purely, if WE is the object that they search, some collects dynatron bravery aircraft only, some collects bravery radio. In these collector, some closes not to sell only, really right of bravery machine true-blue and respected but admire, some buying machine sell machine, this also is a kind of action that extends proper hobby actively, like of course must also economic actual strength supports ability to always originally. Happy event is new abandon old model lover also can say is innovatory clique. Listen to be disgusted with stone machine changes bravery plane, listened to bravery machine to still want to continue to upgrade, namely this brother, make sound world dynamic. Bravery machine gives make clique and " oneself rub carried " clique to bring the opportunity that unfolds skill greatly, sheet carries what dynatron, pentode push-pull, any designs try, change bravery, change a line, change capacitance, resistor, it is not to have place really not " rub " . More each sticks to his own view, be locked in a stalemate. Artists like music, in bank of deep Qiu Hu, in the late night of midwinter, the lamp bravery cheerful voice that twinkling then more brought not little free time to want with inspiration. 2. The bravery machine on market of choice bravery machine full of beautiful things in eyes, have in a popular style model with famous brand product. Price of in a popular style product is commonly under 1000 dollars, have the DIY (Do It Your Self) Kit that makes for acoustics lover proper motion only. Circuitry of machine of this kind of bravery and airframe are designed flatly, with medium quality spare parts, partial product reduces cost as a result of manufacturer and oversight airframe exterior, although design of line of this kind of model is compact, but trouble is little also, medium quality spare parts may affect acoustic quality, but the durable function that the reader need not worry about it, this kind of machine suits very much first bravery engine fan of the introduction. KIT of sale of Euramerican day manufacturer machine already was experienced tens of year, no matter they are in design, fittings, pack go up to make great efforts with the manual that make. Pack compact and firm, the reader that buys with mail-order means also need not be anxious to buy be damaged in journey. The manual that make more elaborate design, graph Wen Bingmao, should follow the prescribed order to be installed according to manual only machine, although be opposite,electricity has basic knowledge only can make a success mostly. Encountered difficulty, manufacturer also very go coaching readily, it is cheap that KIT machine compares equal finished product opportunity normally hundreds dollar, the interest that actual outfit machine increases pair of acoustics further can be passed after young fan learned electricity theory. Famous brand machine dares to use makings, can compare common 300B price tower above to WE 300B number is decuple. Tens of dollars capacitance, pure silver-colored wiring, aureate interface is the standard norms of famous brand machine. Special the Parmelloy that machine of bravery of costly famous brand uses, chip matchs the output fire ox that makes with pure silver-colored coil again, of its price do not think high more knowable. Elaborate design of model of engine of famous brand bravery, make meticulous wonderful artical excelling nature, be like an artwork, its value lasts long. Want to buy KIT or finished product machine, machine of masses type famous brand, the conclusion affirmation of the technical standards on referenced advertisement and acoustics magazine experts won't be wrong, be being returned finally nevertheless is with " of " keep expenditures within the limits of income these 4 words by readers oneself are decided, here, the author can be in only technical a few opinions are offerred to readers inside limits. 3. Hind the class after much bolder machine outputs class power power is general not quite, the class after Chan Duan counts tile to come only ten tile, chan Duan is shunt-wound and most 229 tile. The class after most push-pull type 30 to 60 tile, cost of the class after the bravery opportunity with great wattage is high, unless have special need, generally speaking the power under 50 tile is in the listen respectfully room of 40 square metre already more than sufficient, the friend that likes bravery chance is not needed too the class after the bravery opportunity that seeks high-power. Loudhailer decides the alternative of bravery machine, the loudhailer with low sensitivity is pushed hard, but the reader can be at ease, major loudhailer loves bravery, one has Audion of 8 made of baked clay class A to be able to make the show of Rogers LS 3/5a that sensitivity has 82.3db SPL only outstanding likewise only. Bravery machine temperature is high, especially power big or OTL bravery machine. The class after the EL 34 push-pull of power of odd track 80W produces the heat energy that is equal to 200W bulb probably, a 6C33C-B double triode put tubal temperature by force to be as high as 260 ℃ ! Medicinal powder hot issue cannot be taken no account of. 4. Before class how the class before bravery machine has input for tall n only (CD, tapedeck, the Line Stage of Tuner) mixes two kinds when include Phono inside, both price differs quite big, the friend that does not play LP can be not needed buy latter. Line Stage had better have an enlarge of 3 double dynatron, beard that has Phono enlarge to have 6 double dynatron, such design is set for certain negative time be defeated and output with impedance of Cathode Follower low output in last class, the class before buying must choose to use the brand that has expected, inferior transformer can happen to shake slightly, annoy quiet musical setting, bad resistor is used long hind can produce noise, capacitance more affect acoustic quality, electrical outlet, wiring, circuit board to wait to must be examined carefully one by one. Of the standard before class must have stabilized voltage facility, design of vacuum tube stabilized voltage is occupied big, finally can with enlarge part fission, each filament must use dc power source. Class also is terminal of mark of an input question before, its input need diversity with adjusting control function, have facility of EPL (External Processing Loop) , still can receive Home Theatre Processor, make reputation of bravery of or so two track, when acoustics is watching opera especially remarkable. 5. Enlarge of the class after lamp bravery finds opportunity of push-pull type bravery whether hard is in charge of EL 34 (6CA7) of general continue to use, 5881(6L6) , KT 88, 6550, 6V6, EL 84 (6BQ5) , a few high-power bravery machine with high frequency with 6146B and bravery of the 807 class after be, imperial bravery machine is multi-purpose 6L6/5881, because of,the author does not know its Central Plains, the birth that perhaps is it is early, design home people feel already to its character fully. Each factory still is being produced now, have Chinese dawn, russian Svetlana and Sovtek, american Groove Tubes. EL 34 also gains ground very much, the Svetlana with flat price and Sovtek product quality are good. The KT 88 of beautiful tone already was become now with 6550 bravery collect article, new nevertheless product is not little also. The class after odd end chance uses 300B generally, 2A3, 6B4, dynatron of 6080 and so on puts bassoon, useful also 811, 845, of 211 and so on high frequency put a valve by force. In machine of numerous Chan Duan, 300B is used the most widely, each factory still is continueing to produce this a badder-like inner container now, already also restored even the Western Electric with old stop production to produce famed WE-300B afresh even, 6080, 811 buy not hard also, as to 845, 15, 2A3, the dynatron of 211 and so on is searched harder, only perhaps China returns production. WE restores to produce WE 212E/308B recently, this is inapproachable dynatron can arise exceed the output power with decuple 300B (sheet is in charge of Chan Duan to output 100W! ) , of chance of odd to demand high power end have a fever friend should be a good news. A few bravery business of American also have sell secondhand goods bravery, the friend that loves an experiment is OK and cheap order. The small-sized a badder-like inner container that class uses before more buy not hard, new money of a few old banks (Nos, precious bravery of New Old Stock) also is short of. 6. Bravery machine beautiful voice is a fact, nevertheless it also has the temperature when demerit lamp bravery works to be defeated tall and easily, the home has a child want special caution especially, should put in the place of ventilated and not easy bring into contact with. Voltage of bravery engine work is tall, closing machine there still perhaps can be tall voltage to exist inside period of time, in case malfunction, the reader that does not know electricity had better not be repaired by oneself, know a beard of electricity to want to take care to be engaged in. Lamp bravery life is universal it is thousands of hours, can use on 9 years normally, WE 300B is exceptional, it has life of 40 thousand hours, can use tens of year! See American CES, bravery machine product has addition tendency, thick plan also have more than 70, bravery aircraft manufacturer exhibits their product, the chance that compare stone is one times more, WE besides producing WE 274B and WE 308B again, also produce serious new student WE horn and bravery engine, veteran stage a comeback, everybody wait and see what happens, listen with respectful attention.

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