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音响系统与听音房间的匹配

admin 2018-05-16 00:07:11 无损音乐交流 0℃
音响系统讲究的就是一个匹配,其中音响系统和房间进行搭配是比较困难的。在音响展览会上,可以说参展者没有一家不抱怨自己的音响系统与展示厅房间不匹配的问题。再者,我为各层次的朋友搭配的部分较高档次的系统(价格大都在1万~2万元),在各自的房间中产生的效果真是千差万别。总结一点就是,不管你的音响系统档次有多高,只要和听音环境不匹配,全都是白白浪费银子,一句话就是空间失真的问题。  一般地说,音源的负载是功放机,功放机的负载是音箱,而音箱的负载就是听音的房间。  空间失真是指重放系统声音输出和进入人耳的声音输入之间的差别。这种失真主要是由于房间的谐振驻波产生的,由于房间中的墙壁、地板、天花板以及室内的各种物体,或者对某些频率的吸收或反射。直达声经过反射造成的起初的延迟声和后来的延迟声相互交织在一起造成失真,或者由于音箱位置摆放不好而使其方向性变窄,不能使原音声场再现。对于以上问题,因各自的房间不同,以及各种设备的性能特点不一样,哪怕是权威专家也难有统一的标准,只能根据各自的实际情况来调试搭配。  一、房间大小与机器功率之间的匹配功率放大器的功率输出必须根据房间面积大小、高度、容积等条件来选择,主要保证重放时有一定的声压,而且要和音箱功率基本匹配。功率太小音量不够,太大又造成浪费。一般家用根据经验,胆机20W~50W,石机50W~100W额定输出功率就可以了。  二、听音房间的空间尺寸为了避免产生驻波,房间的空间尺寸的比例要合适。消除或者至少避免声波因四周墙壁在某一频率上产生共振,可大大提高系统重放时的声音清晰度。一旦共振发生将很难消除,一间尺寸和装修都已经固定的房间,并不是什么高档器材和音源都可以完美重放的。一般家庭的客厅比较容易出现驻波的频率大约在80Hz~300Hz,根据很多资料的介绍,听音房间的长、宽、高比例应该是1.618:1:0.6侣,如房间尺寸差异太大,可以在装修时通过调整天花板吊顶的高度来弥补,而宽度则可以调节墙面装饰物的厚度(如电视墙、酒柜墙、古董架等)来弥补。  三、听音房间的混响时间对于不同尺寸、构造,特别是室内六面材料都不同的房间,都存在不同的混响时间。混响时间的长短主要和发声清晰度构成一对矛盾,混响时间太短,声音枯燥发干,混响时间太长,声音混淆不清,大量细节将无法在声场中重现,大大影响欣赏音乐的效果。混响时间就是指声源停止发声后,混响声能衰减60dB所需的时间,其计算公式很多报刊均有介绍:T60=0.163V/sa式中:T60为混响声能衰减60dB所需时间的符号,V为房间的体积,S为房间六面面积的总和,a为各面材料的平均吸声系数。  我们知道大多数房间在装修时,不可能都只针对音响的声学要求来设计。而V和S都不可能有太大的改变(房价太贵),故只能根据实际情况来解决。  首先是音箱应靠房间墙壁的短边(宽)摆放左右。音箱中心对中心大约等于0.7倍墙壁短边尺寸,音箱背后离墙壁约0.5~1.2m之间,如果音箱开有后倒相孔,那就要多调整几次。音箱喇叭面向前指向要求尽可能距离长一些,如能穿过饭厅或厨房通过门窗洞孔与外相通则更好,可以通过打开或关闭门窗洞孔的面积来调整声波的吸收和反射。  其次,用高强度的石膏纤维板来做天棚,沿房间四周设置,宽度约0.7米,高度0.3米成内空型,完全能吸音,建议不要整个房间满吊装。墙面用石膏制成的工艺浮雕砖设置电视墙,用木工板制作的酒柜墙、古董架等,墙面已经占用差不多了,剩余部分用乳胶漆涂刷处理。混响时间就是指声源停止发声后,混响声能衰减60dB所需的时间,其计算公式很多报刊均有介绍:T60=0.163V/sa式中:T60为混响声能衰减60dB所需时间的符号,V为房间的体积,S为房间六面面积的总和,a为各面材料的平均吸声系数。  我们知道大多数房间在装修时,不可能都只针对音响的声学要求来设计。而V和S都不可能有太大的改变(房价太贵),故只能根据实际情况来解决。首先是音箱应靠房间墙壁的短边(宽)摆放左右。音箱中心对中心大约等于0.7倍墙壁短边尺寸,音箱背后离墙壁约0.5~1.2m之间,如果音箱开有后倒相孔,那就要多调整几次。音箱喇叭面向前指向要求尽可能距离长一些,如能穿过饭厅或厨房通过门窗洞孔与外相通则更好,可以通过打开或关闭门窗洞孔的面积来调整声波的吸收和反射。  其次,用高强度的石膏纤维板来做天棚,沿房间四周设置,宽度约0.7米,高度0.3米成内空型,完全能吸音,建议不要整个房间满吊装。墙面用石膏制成的工艺浮雕砖设置电视墙,用木工板制作的酒柜墙、古董架等,墙面已经占用差不多了,剩余部分用乳胶漆涂刷处理。余下的就是室内家具和挂饰物了,一般家具的位置是不易改变的,主要是窗帘和墙挂饰物以及地毯的位置。如果房间的墙壁又平又硬,还有光滑的地砖、花岗石地面,存在很强烈的反射,这就要增加窗帘的面积,在墙壁上增加挂饰物,在地面上增加地毯,以便对中、高音进行一些对冲和改善。 Sound system cultured matchs namely, among them sound system and room undertake collocation is more difficult. On acoustics exhibition, can say to join the person that exhibit to do not have a sound system that does not blame his and the issue that show hall room not to match. Moreover, the part that I match for the friend of each administrative levels relatively the system of high quality scales (the price is in mostly 10 thousand ~ 20 thousand yuan of) , the result that produces in respective room is differ in thousands ways really. Sum up is, no matter your sound system class has many tall, want only and listen to phonic environment not to match, all is to waste silver for nothing, a word is the problem with lack fidelity space. Popularly says, the load of phonic source is result put machine, result putting the load of machine is sound box, and the load of sound box is to listen to phonic room. The space is broken is to show output of replay system sound and the sound that enter person ear input the difference between really. If arise as a result of the syntonic standing wave of the room,this kind breaks Allah, as a result of the room medium wall, floor, ceiling and all sorts of indoor objects, right perhaps the absorption of certain frequency or reflex. Direct sound wave causes through reflection at first defer sound and the defer sound later interweave together to cause each other lack fidelity, perhaps put as a result of sound box position bad and make its directional narrow, cannot make emersion of former sound sound field. To above problem, because respective room is different, and the function characteristic of all sorts of equipment is different, even if be authoritative expert has unified level hard also, can debug collocation only according to respective actual condition. One, the marries power amplifier power between room size and machine power is outputted must choose according to the condition such as room area size, height, cubage, basically assure replay from time to tome certain sound is pressed, and should match basically with sound box power. Power is too little volume is insufficient, too big create waste again. Basis of general family expenses experience, 50W of ~ of bravery machine 20W, power of rated output of 100W of ~ of stone machine 50W is OK. 2, the dimensional size that listens to phonic room generates standing wave to avoid, the scale of the dimensional size of the room wants appropriate. Because of,prevent sound wave at least all around wall produces resonance on some frequency, can enhance the sound definition when systematic replay greatly. Once resonance happening will be eliminated very hard, a dimension and decorate already fixed room, what be high-grade equipment is symphonious the source is OK and perfect of replay. The sitting room of average household appears more easily the frequency of standing wave is in about 80Hz ~ 300Hz, according to the introduction of a lot of data, the length that listens to phonic room, wide, high proportion should be 1.618: 1: 0.6 associate, if room dimension difference is too big, the height that can rectify ceiling condole to support through tone when decorate will make up for, and width can adjust the ply of metope ornamental (if wall of ark of TV wall, wine, antique is worn,wait) will make up for. 3, the reverberation time that hears phonic room is dimension, tectonic to differring, especially indoor the room with 6 different material, put in different reverberation time. The accident of reverberation time basically is mixed phonate definition constitutes a pair of contradiction, reverberation time is too short, as dry as a chip hair does voice, reverberation time is too long, sound is promiscuous not clear, a large number of detail will not return in sound field, affect the result that enjoys music greatly. After reverberation time shows acoustical source stops to phonate namely, the time that place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy needs, its calculate formulary very much the press all has the introduction: In type of T60=0.163V / Sa: T60 wants the sign of time for place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy, v is the bulk of the room, s is a room the summation of 6 areas, a is the average sound power absorption coefficient of each material. When we know most room is being decorated, the acoustics demand that is aimed at acoustics impossibly only will design. And V and S have too big change impossibly (house price is too expensive) , reason can be solved only according to actual condition. It is the short edge that sound box should rely on room wall above all (wide) put the left and right sides. Sound box center approximates dimension of short edge of 0.7 times wall greatly to the center, sound box backside makes an appointment with 0.5 ~ 1.2m from wall between, if sound box leaves,photograph aperture falls after having, that is about to be adjusted a few times more. The requirement is pointed to to be apart from as far as possible before sound box horn is faced a few longer, it is better to if can cross dining room or kitchen to pass aperture of door an opening in a wall and foreign minister,be connected, can adjust the absorption of sound wave and reflex through open or shutting the area of aperture of door an opening in a wall. Next, the gesso beaverboard that uses high strength will do ceiling, edge room all around setting, width makes an appointment with 0.7 meters, height is become 0.3 meters inside sky, complete can sound-absorbing, the proposal does not want whole room full hoisting. The craft anaglyph brick that metope makes with gesso sets TV wall, the wine ark wall that uses carpentry board to make, antique wearing, metope has taken up about the same, odd part brushs processing with emulsioni paint besmear. After reverberation time shows acoustical source stops to phonate namely, the time that place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy needs, its calculate formulary very much the press all has the introduction: In type of T60=0.163V / Sa: T60 wants the sign of time for place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy, v is the bulk of the room, s is a room the summation of 6 areas, a is the average sound power absorption coefficient of each material. When we know most room is being decorated, the acoustics demand that is aimed at acoustics impossibly only will design. And V and S have too big change impossibly (house price is too expensive) , reason can be solved only according to actual condition. It is the short edge that sound box should rely on room wall above all (wide) put the left and right sides. Sound box center approximates dimension of short edge of 0.7 times wall greatly to the center, sound box backside makes an appointment with 0.5 ~ 1.2m from wall between, if sound box leaves,photograph aperture falls after having, that is about to be adjusted a few times more. The requirement is pointed to to be apart from as far as possible before sound box horn is faced a few longer, it is better to if can cross dining room or kitchen to pass aperture of door an opening in a wall and foreign minister,be connected, can adjust the absorption of sound wave and reflex through open or shutting the area of aperture of door an opening in a wall. Next, the gesso beaverboard that uses high strength will do ceiling, edge room all around setting, width makes an appointment with 0.7 meters, height is become 0.3 meters inside sky, complete can sound-absorbing, the proposal does not want whole room full hoisting. The craft anaglyph brick that metope makes with gesso sets TV wall, the wine ark wall that uses carpentry board to make, antique wearing, metope has taken up about the same, odd part brushs processing with emulsioni paint besmear. The rest of is indoor furniture is mixed hang decorations, the position of general furniture is not easy change, basically be the position that curtain and wall hang decorations and carpet. If the wall of the room is made the same score again hard, still have smooth floor tile, granitic area, put in very intense reflex, this is about to raise the area of the curtain, increase on wall hang decorations, carpet increases on the ground, so that be opposite medium, high undertake a few pairs rush with improvement.

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